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Table of Content

    25 June 2022, Volume 35 Issue 3
    Stabilization via Fully Actuated System Approach:A Case Study
    DUAN Guang-Ren
    2022, 35(3):  731-747.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-022-2091-7
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    In this note, a benchmark example system which is not stabilizable by a smooth state feedback controller is considered with the fully actuated system (FAS) approach. It is shown that a smooth controller exists which drives the trajectories starting from a large domain in the initial value space to the origin exponentially. Such a result brings about a generalization of Lyapunov asymptotical stability, which is termed as global exponential sub-stability. The region of attraction is allowed to be an unbounded open set of the initial values with closure containing the origin. This sub-stability result may be viewed to be superior to some local stability results in the Lyapunov sense because the region of attraction is much larger than any finite ball containing the origin and meanwhile the feasible trajectories are always driven to the origin exponentially. Based on this sub-stabilization result, globally asymptotically stabilizing controllers for the system can be provided in two general ways, one is through combination with existing globally stabilizing controllers, and the other is by using a pre-controller to first move an initial point which is not within the region of attraction into the region of attraction.
    LS-Based Parameter Estimation of DARMA Systems with Uniformly Quantized Observations
    JING Lida, ZHANG Ji-Feng
    2022, 35(3):  748-765.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-021-0314-y
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    This paper is concerned with the parameter estimation of deterministic autoregressive moving average (DARMA) systems with quantization data. The estimation algorithms adopted here are the least squares (LS) and the forgetting factor LS, and the signal quantizer is of uniform, that is, with uniform quantization error. The authors analyse the properties of the LS and the forgetting factor LS, and establish the boundedness of the estimation errors and a relationship of the estimation errors with the size of quantization error, which implies that the smaller the quantization error is, the smaller the estimation error is. A numerical example is given to demonstrate theorems.
    A BSDE Approach to Stochastic Differential Games Involving Impulse Controls and HJBI Equation
    ZHANG Liangquan
    2022, 35(3):  766-801.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-021-0264-4
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    This paper focuses on zero-sum stochastic differential games in the framework of forwardbackward stochastic differential equations on a finite time horizon with both players adopting impulse controls. By means of BSDE methods, in particular that of the notion from Peng's stochastic backward semigroups, the authors prove a dynamic programming principle for both the upper and the lower value functions of the game. The upper and the lower value functions are then shown to be the unique viscosity solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman-Isaacs equations with a double-obstacle. As a consequence, the uniqueness implies that the upper and lower value functions coincide and the game admits a value.
    Longitudinal Control for Balloon-Borne Launched Solar Powered UAVs in Near-Space
    HU Yanpeng, GUO Jin, MENG Wenyue, LIU Guanyu, XUE Wenchao
    2022, 35(3):  802-819.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-022-1302-6
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    Aiming to improve the pull-up control performance in the process of releasing balloonborne solar powered UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), this paper establishes the full flight mechanics equations with flexible modes, and proposes the control method suitable for engineering application. To be specific, the authors first calculate the real aerodynamic force on horizontal stabilizer by comparing the fuselage deformation in ballooning test with that in static loading test. Furthermore, considering fuselage elastic deformation, the pitching moment coefficient is obtained and the influence of airspeed and elevator angle on pitching moment coefficient and control surface efficiency are analysed. Second, the authors establish a complete flight mechanics model, including elastic structural dynamic model and rigid flight dynamic model, by comprehensively considering the aerodynamic data, the relationship between fuselage deformation and load, as well as the ballooning test. Third, the authors perform the numerical simulation and comparison study on control performance between rigid model and flexible model. Moreover, the authors implement model modification based on the low altitude flight test and steady-state point analysing. Finally, a scaled UAV is used to complete the balloon-borne launching test. The results show that the longitudinal control method can analyse the longitudinal aerodynamics and control characteristics accurately, and could be effectively utilized in the pull-up control of the balloon-borne solar powered UAV.
    Distributed Event-Triggered Formation Control of USVs with Prescribed Performance
    CHEN Guangdeng, YAO Deyin, ZHOU Qi, LI Hongyi, LU Renquan
    2022, 35(3):  820-838.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-021-0150-0
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    In this paper, the formation control problem is investigated for a team of uncertain underactuated surface vessels (USVs) based on a directed graph. Considering the risk of collision and the limited communication range of USVs, the prescribed performance control (PPC) methodology is employed to ensure collision avoidance and connectivity maintenance. An event-triggered mechanism is designed to reasonably use the limited communication resources. Moreover, neural networks (NNs) and an auxiliary variable are constructed to deal with the problems of uncertain nonlinearities and underactuation, respectively. Then, an event-triggered formation control scheme is proposed to ensure that all signals of the closed-loop system are uniformly ultimately bounded (UUB). Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
    Revealing Spatial Spillover Effect in High-Tech Industry Agglomeration from a High-Skilled Labor Flow Network Perspective
    WANG Chen, WANG Lu, XUE Yanbo, LI Ruiqi
    2022, 35(3):  839-859.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-022-1056-1
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    Understanding the high-tech industrial agglomeration from a spatial-spillover perspective is essential for cities to gain economic and technological competitive advantages. Along with rapid urbanization and the development of fast transportation networks, socioeconomic interactions between cities have been ever-increasing, traditional spatial metrics are not enough to describe actual inter-city connections. High-skilled labor flow between cities strongly influences the high-tech industrial agglomeration, yet receives less attention. By exploiting unique large-scale datasets and tools from complex network and data mining, the authors construct an inter-city high-skilled labor flow network, which was integrated into spatial econometric models. The regression results indicate that spatial-spillover effects exist in the development of high-tech industries in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration region. Moreover, the spatial-spillover effects are stronger among cities with a higher volume of high-skilled labor flows than among cities with just stronger geographic connections. Additionally, the authors investigate the channels for the spillover effects and discover that inadequate local government expenses on science and technology likely hamper the high-tech industrial agglomeration, so does the inadequate local educational provision. The increasing foreign direct investments in one city likely encourages the high-tech industrial agglomeration in other cities because of the policy inertia toward traditional industries.
    Finite-Time H ∞ Sampled-Data Reliable Control for a Class of Markovian Jump Systems with Randomly Occurring Uncertainty via T-S Fuzzy Model
    LIU Yuanyuan, ZHANG Yutong, MA Yuechao
    2022, 35(3):  860-887.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-021-0220-3
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    The paper analyzes finite-time H∞ sampled-data reliability control for nonlinear continuous time Markovian jump systems with randomly occurring uncertainty on account of T-S fuzzy model. In particular, the transition rates of the Markovian jump systems have both the upper bound and lower bound. Meanwhile, a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) is considered, which fully captures the available characteristics of real sampling period, and a sampled-data controller with nonlinear actuator failures is designed. Based on the integral inequality technique, some less conservative conditions are proposed such that the stochastic fuzzy system is reliable in the sense, which satisfies finite-time bounded and certain H∞ performance level γ. Additionally, some numerical examples can illustrate the effectiveness of the results.
    Scaled Bipartite Consensus Controller Design for Second-Order Multi-Agent Systems with Mixed Time-Delays
    YANG Ruitian, PENG Li, YANG Yongqing, ZHAO Huarong
    2022, 35(3):  888-908.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-021-0189-y
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    The scaled bipartite consensus of second-order multi-agent systems is investigated in this paper. The internal delay and distributed delay are also considered in the dynamic model of each agent, in which the delays can be time-varying and large. The communication topology among agents is assumed to be directed and structurally balanced. On one hand, in order to guarantee scaled bipartite consensus of second-order multi-agent systems, an adaptive periodically intermittent control protocol is applied. On the other hand, some consensus criteria in the form of matrix inequalities are obtained by using Jensen inequality, Lyapunov stability theory and graph theory. Finally, a numerical simulation example is given to demonstrate the feasibility of theoretical results.
    Containment Control of Multi-Agent Systems with Stochastic Multiplicative Noises
    REN Junhao, ZONG Xiaofeng
    2022, 35(3):  909-930.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-021-0167-4
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    This paper investigates the containment problem of continuous-time multi-agent systems with multiplicative noises, where the first-order and second-order multi-agent systems are studied respectively. Based on stochastic analysis tools, algebraic graph theory, and Lyapunov function method, the containment protocols based the relative states measurement with multiplicative noises are developed to guarantee the mean square and almost sure containment. Moreover, the sufficient conditions and necessary conditions related to the control gains are derived for achieving mean square and almost sure containment. It is also shown that multiplicative noises may works positively for the almost sure containment of the first-order multi-agent systems. Simulation examples are also introduced to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.
    Long-Time Behavior and Density Function of a Stochastic Chemostat Model with Degenerate Diffusion
    GAO Miaomiao, JIANG Daqing, WEN Xiangdan
    2022, 35(3):  931-952.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-021-0170-9
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    This paper considers a stochastic chemostat model with degenerate diffusion. Firstly, the Markov semigroup theory is used to establish sufficient criteria for the existence of a unique stable stationary distribution. The authors show that the densities of the distributions of the solutions can converge in L1 to an invariant density. Then, conditions are obtained to guarantee the washout of the microorganism. Furthermore, through solving the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation, the authors give the exact expression of density function around the positive equilibrium of deterministic system. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the theoretical results.
    Event-Triggered Control for Multi-Agent Systems:Event Mechanisms for Information Transmission and Controller Update
    LIU Pin, XIAO Feng, WEI Bo
    2022, 35(3):  953-972.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-021-0200-7
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    This paper investigates the state consensus of linear multi-agent systems in a graph where each agent is equipped with two novel event-triggering mechanisms. Each agent utilizes them to avoid continuous information transmissions with its neighbors and to reduce the frequencies of controller updates, respectively. One of the event-triggering mechanisms defines a threshold of state errors by a constant plus a state-dependent variable. The other event-triggering mechanism introduces a period of rest time after each event. For each agent, both event-triggering mechanisms are fully distributed and are independent of any global information. The authors utilize a co-design approach to deal with the interplay between control gains and parameters in event-triggering mechanisms. With appropriate control gains in control laws and parameters in event-triggering conditions, subsystems employing discrete-time signals from neighbors and discrete-time signals from their controllers achieve the state consensus. Simulations are performed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed event-triggering mechanisms.
    Event-Triggered Adaptive Neural Control for Multiagent Systems with Deferred State Constraints
    YANG Bin, CAO Liang, XIAO Wenbin, YAO Deyin, LU Renquan
    2022, 35(3):  973-992.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-021-0201-6
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    This paper focuses on the leader-following consensus control problem for nonlinear multiagent systems subject to deferred asymmetric time-varying state constraints. A distributed eventtriggered adaptive neural control approach is advanced. By virtue of a distributed sliding-mode estimator, the leader-following consensus control problem is converted into multiple simplified tracking control problems. Afterwards, a shifting function is utilized to transform the error variables such that the initial tracking condition can be totally unknown and the state constraints can be imposed at a specified time instant. Meanwhile, the deferred asymmetric time-varying full state constraints are addressed by a class of asymmetric barrier Lyapunov function. In order to reduce the burden of communication, a relative threshold event-triggered mechanism is incorporated into controller and Zeno behavior is excluded. Based on Lyapunov stability theorem, all closed-loop signals are proved to be semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, a practical simulation example is given to verify the presented control scheme.
    Government Investment and High-Quality Economic Development-Measurement and Analysis Based on Input-Output Method
    YANG Xuelian, TIAN Kailan, ZHU Lingxiu, YANG Cuihong
    2022, 35(3):  993-1008.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-022-0268-8
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    Analysis of how government investment promotes economic development and employment is important for improving government's decision-making and promoting high-quality economic development in western China. In this paper, the authors take Xinjiang as an example to conduct such an analysis. Firstly, based on the competitive input-output table of Xinjiang, the non-competitive input-output tables of 2007, 2012 and 2015 are compiled in this paper. Secondly, the contribution of Xinjiang government investment, especially the major government investment projects, to the valueadded of Xinjiang, other provinces and cities in China and abroad are calculated. Thirdly, this paper uses the non-competitive input-output table to compile the sectoral employment vector, and uses the input-occupancy-output technique to measure how government investment promotes employment. The results show that Xinjiang government investment contributes the most to the value-added of Xinjiang and other provinces and cities, but less to foreign countries; the government investment create the most job opportunities in projects including transportation projects and livelihood projects etc.
    Monitoring Mean and Variance Change-Points in Long-Memory Time Series
    CHEN Zhanshou, LI Fuxiao, ZHU Li, XING Yuhong
    2022, 35(3):  1009-1029.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-021-0222-1
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    This paper proposes two ratio-type statistics to sequentially detect mean and variance change-points in the long-memory time series. The limiting distributions of monitoring statistics under the no change-point null hypothesis, alternative hypothesis as well as change-point misspecified hypothesis are proved. In particular, a sieve bootstrap approximation method is proposed to determine the critical values. Simulations indicate that the new monitoring procedures have better finite sample performance than the available off-line tests when the change-point nears to the beginning time of monitoring, and can discriminate between mean and variance change-point. Finally, the authors illustrate their procedures via two real data sets:A set of annual volume of discharge data of the Nile river, and a set of monthly temperature data of northern hemisphere. The authors find a new variance change-point in the latter data.
    Optimal Grouping of Heterogeneous Components in Series and Parallel Systems Under Archimedean Copula Dependence
    FANG Longxiang, ZHANG Xinsheng, JIN Qing
    2022, 35(3):  1030-1051.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-021-0037-0
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    This paper considers series and parallel systems comprising n components drawn from a heterogeneous population consisting of m different subpopulations. The components within each subpopulation are assumed to be dependent, while the subpopulations are independent of each other. The authors also assume that the subpopulations have different Archimedean copulas for their dependence. Under this setup, the authors discuss the series and parallel systems reliability for three different cases, respectively. The authors use the theory of stochastic orders and majorization to establish the main results, and finally present some numerical examples to illustrate all the results established here.
    Coherence, Connectedness, Dynamic Linkages Among Oil and China's Sectoral Commodities with Portfolio Implications
    CUI Jinxin, ZOU Huiwen
    2022, 35(3):  1052-1097.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-021-0095-3
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    This paper investigates the time-frequency dependence, return and volatility connectedness, dynamic linkages, and portfolio diversification gains among oil and China's sectoral commodities, namely, Petrochemicals (CIFI), Grains (CRFI), Energy (ENFI), Non-ferrous metals (NFFI), Oil & Fats (OOFI), and Softs (SOFI), utilizing a proposed research framework that contains the wavelet coherence, novel TVP-VAR based connectedness, and the cDCC-, DECO-FIAPARCH (1, d, 1) model. The empirical results demonstrate that global oil market exhibits a relatively higher (lower) coherence with ENFI, NFFI, and OOFI (CRFI) on the long-term time horizon and the oil market leads China's sectoral commodities during most sample periods. The crude oil market transmits significant connectedness to China's sectoral commodities, especially the energy commodity sector (ENFI). The dynamic return and volatility total spillovers tend to intensify and exhibit significant fluctuations during the GFC and the oil price collapse. Further, the time-varying linkages among oil and China's sectoral commodities are positive and fluctuant, mainly at a relatively low level. The dynamic return and volatility connectedness, multi-view linkages, optimal portfolio weights, and hedging ratios display significant time-varying features. The oil-commodity nexus offers diversification benefits and the optimal-weighted portfolio presents the best variance and downside risk reduction performance. Furthermore, risk management effectiveness is market-condition-dependent and heterogeneous across different commodity sectors and sub-samples. This paper can not only help investors and market regulators to capture the complex interconnectedness and risk transmission trajectory among oil and China's sectoral commodities but also benefits for investors and portfolio managers to construct optimal portfolios and hedging strategies.
    Testing High-Dimensional Nonparametric Behrens-Fisher Problem
    MENG Zhen, LI Na, YUAN Ao
    2022, 35(3):  1098-1115.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-021-0257-3
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    For high-dimensional nonparametric Behrens-Fisher problem in which the data dimension is larger than the sample size, the authors propose two test statistics in which one is U-statistic Rankbased Test (URT) and another is Cauchy Combination Test (CCT). CCT is analogous to the maximumtype test, while URT takes into account the sum of squares of differences of ranked samples in different dimensions, which is free of shapes of distributions and robust to outliers. The asymptotic distribution of URT is derived and the closed form for calculating the statistical significance of CCT is given. Extensive simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the finite sample power performance of the statistics by comparing with the existing method. The simulation results show that our URT is robust and powerful method, meanwhile, its practicability and effectiveness can be illustrated by an application to the gene expression data.
    Estimating the Size of an Open Population with Massive Datasets Based on a Generalized Varying-Coefficient Model
    LI Haoqi, LI Yuan
    2022, 35(3):  1116-1136.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-021-0224-z
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    A generalized varying-coefficient model is proposed to estimate a population size at a specific time from multiple lists of an open population. The research datasets have millions of records with a very long time span (38 years), bringing challenges to calculations. The authors develop a regularization iterative algorithm to overcome this difficulty. The asymptotic distribution of the proposed estimators is derived. Simulation studies show that the procedure works well. The method is applied to estimate the number of drug abusers in Hong Kong, China over the period 1977-2014.
    Asymptotic in the Ordered Networks with a Noisy Degree Sequence
    LUO Jing, QIN Hong
    2022, 35(3):  1137-1153.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-021-0248-4
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    In the case of the differential privacy under the Laplace mechanism, the asymptotic properties of parameter estimators have been derived in some special network models with common binary values, but the asymptotic properties in network models with the ordered values are lacking. In this paper, the authors release the degree sequences of the ordered networks under a general noisy mechanism with the discrete Laplace mechanism as a special case. The authors establish the asymptotic result including the consistency and asymptotical normality of the parameter estimator when the number of parameters goes to infinity. Simulations and a real data example are provided to illustrate asymptotic results.
    Reachable Set Estimation and Safety Verification of Nonlinear Systems via Iterative Sums of Squares Programming
    LIN Wang, YANG Zhengfeng, DING Zuohua
    2022, 35(3):  1154-1172.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-022-1121-9
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    In this paper, the problems of forward reachable set estimation and safety verification of uncertain nonlinear systems with polynomial dynamics are addressed. First, an iterative sums of squares (SOS) programming approach is developed for reachable set estimation. It characterizes the over-approximations of the forward reachable sets by sub-level sets of time-varying Lyapunovlike functions that satisfy an invariance condition, and formulates the problem of searching for the Lyapunov-like functions as a bilinear SOS program, which can be solved via an iterative algorithm. To make the over-approximation tight, the proposed approach seeks to minimize the volume of the overapproximation set with a desired shape. Then, the reachable set estimation approach is extended for safety verification, via explicitly encoding the safety constraint such that the Lyapunov-like functions guarantee both reaching and avoidance. The efficiency of the presented method is illustrated by some numerical examples.
    Ciphertext-Only Attacks Against Compact-LWE Submitted to NIST PQC Project
    LI Haoyu, LIU Renzhang, LIU Zhen, PAN Yanbin, XIE Tianyuan
    2022, 35(3):  1173-1190.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-021-0042-3
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    As a candidate of the standard of post-quantum cryptography for NIST, Liu, et al. submitted a new public-key encryption scheme Compact-LWE, whose structure is similar to LWE, but with different distribution of errors. They thought that the special error distribution would protect Compact-LWE from known lattice-based attacks. Furthermore, they recommended a set of small parameters to improve the efficiency of Compact-LWE and claimed it can offer 192-bit security. However, in this paper, the authors show that Compact-LWE is not secure under recommended parameters by presenting two ciphertext-only attacks. First, the authors show that the message can be recovered efficiently from the ciphertext. Then the authors go further to recover an equivalent private key efficiently from the public key by exploiting the special structure of Compact-LWE.
    On Some Computational Problems in Local Fields
    DENG Yingpu, LUO Lixia, PAN Yanbin, XIAO Guanju
    2022, 35(3):  1191-1200.  DOI: 10.1007/s11424-021-0074-8
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    Lattices in Euclidean spaces are important research objects in geometric number theory, and they have important applications in many areas, such as cryptology. The shortest vector problem (SVP) and the closest vector problem (CVP) are two famous computational problems about lattices. In this paper, we consider p-adic lattices in local fields, and define the p-adic analogues of SVP and CVP in local fields. The authors find that, in contrast with lattices in Euclidean spaces, the situation is different and interesting. The SVP in Euclidean spaces corresponds to the Longest Vector Problem (LVP) in local fields. The authors develop relevant algorithms, indicating that these problems are computable.